The first practical guide to infrastructure security using Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Intelligent Transportation Systems, or ITS, integrates different computing, control, and communication technologies to help monitor and manage traffic management that helps reduce congestion while saving lives, time, and money. While mobility and safety are the primary objectives of any good transportation system, security has also become an equally important consideration in their design and operation. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of techniques to leverage ITS in support of security and safety for surface transportation infrastructure. Through the book's multidisciplinary approach, readers gain a comprehensive introduction to the diverse aspects of transportation infrastructure security as well as how ITS can reduce risks and be protected from threats with such topics as computer systems, risk analysis, and multi-modal transportation systems. This book, which will serve as a textbook and guide, provides: Current ITS approaches to security issues such as freight security, disaster and evacuation response, HAZMAT incidents, rail security, and ITS Wide Area Alerts Guidance on the development of a regional transportation security plan Securing ITS itself and privacy issues involved in any collection and use of personally identifiable tracking data Exercises, question-and-answer sections, and other helpful review tools for the reader Filling a gap in the practical application of security, Transportation Infrastructure Security Utilizing Intelligent Transportation Systems offers both students and transportation professionals valuable insights into the new security challenges encountered and how to manage these challenges with the use of computerized transportation systems.
Preface. Acknowledgments. Chapter 1: Introduction. 1.1 Concept of Security. 1.2 Transportation and Security. 1.3 Security in the ITS Context. 1.4 Scope and Audience of the Book. 1.5 Content and Organization. 1.6 References. 1.7 Review Questions. Chapter 2: Need for Surface Transportation Infrastructure Security. 2.1 Vulnerabilities. 2.2 Common Characteristics of Surface Transportation Systems. 2.3 Common Threats to Surface Transportation Systems. 2.3.1 Earthquakes. 2.3.2 Fires. 2.3.3 Terrorist Attacks. 2.3.4 HAZMAT. 2.3.5 Blackouts. 2.3.6 Hurricanes. 2.3.7 Floods. 2.3.8 Biological and Chemical Attacks. 2.3.9 Derailment. 2.3.10 Cyber Attacks. 2.4 Defending against Threats Both External and Internal. 2.5 Why Transportation Infrastructure Security Is Important. 2.6 Focus Areas. 2.7 Summary. 2.8 References. 2.9 Review Questions. Chapter 3: Leveraging ITS to Reduce Risk and Exposure Using ITS Security Areas. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Disaster Response and Evacuation. 3.3 Freight and Commercial Vehicle Security. 3.4 HAZMAT Security. 3.5 ITS Wide Area Alert. 3.6 Rail Security. 3.7 Transit Security. 3.8 Transportation Infrastructure Security. 3.9 Traveler Security. 3.10 Conclusions. 3.11 References. 3.12 Reviews Questions. Chapter 4: Risk Assessment Framework. 4.1 Risk Assessment Framework. 4.1.1 Critical Assets. 4.1.2 Risks Assessment Methods. 4.1.3 Mitigation and Countermeasures. 4.1.4 Selection of Options. 4.2 Opportunities and Challenges. 4.3 Application of the Framework. 4.4 References. 4.5 Review Questions. Chapter 5: Application of Risk Assessment and Management Tools. 5.1 Application of Risk Assessment Methods. 5.1.1 Blue Ribbon Panel Method. 5.1.2 Fault-Tree Analysis. 5.1.3 Weibull Hazards Model Example. 5.2 Application of Evacuation Models and Traffic Models for Response Planning. 5.3 Application of Other Methods. 5.4 Reference. 5.5 Review Questions. Chapter 6: Fundamentals of Computer Network Security for ITS. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Elements of Computer Network Security. 6.3 Importance of Computer Network Security. 6.4 Approach to Computer Network Security. 6.4.1 Policy. 6.4.2 Current State. 6.4.3 Security Requirements. 6.4.4 Recommended Controls. 6.4.5 Accountability. 6.4.6 Timetable. 6.4.7 Continuing Attention. 6.5 Computer Network Security in ITS. 6.6 Network Security Objectives. 6.6.1 Confidentiality. 6.6.2 Authentication. 6.6.3 Message Integrity and Nonrepudiation. 6.6.4 Availability. 6.6.5 Access Control. 6.7 Future of Network Security and Its Impacts on Securing ITS Network. References. 6.2 Review Questions. Chapter 7: Securing ITS. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Security Objectives. 7.2.1 Confidentiality. 7.2.2 Integrity. 7.2.3 Availability. 7.3 Security Threats. 7.3.1 Deception. 7.3.2 Disruption. 7.3.3 Usurpation. 7.3.4 (Unauthorized) Disclosure. 7.4 Security Services. 7.4.1 Information Security. 7.4.2 ITS Personnel Security. 7.4.3 Operational Security. 7.4.4 Security Management. 7.5 Securing ITS Subsystems. 7.6 Securing Communications between Subsystems. 7.7 Security and ITS Standards. 7.7.1 National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol. 7.7.2 Traffic Management Data Dictionary and Message Sets. 7.7.3 Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks. 7.7.4 Archived Data. 7.7.5 Dedicated Short Range Communications. 7.7.6 Incident Management. 7.7.7 Transit Communications Interface Profiles. 7.7.8 Advanced Traveler Information Systems. 7.8 Conclusions. 7.9 References. 7.10 Review Questions. Chapter 8: ITS Security Areas and Multimodal Transportation Security. 8.1 Protecting People. 8.1.1 Airports. 8.1.2 Public Transit. 8.1.3 Perception of Security. 8.2 Protecting Vehicles and Infrastructure. 8.2.1 Airports. 8.2.2 Public Transit. 8.2.3 Rail Vehicles and Infrastructure. 8.2.4 Ships and Ports. 8.3 Protecting Freight. 8.3.1 Containers. 8.3.2 HAZMAT. 8.3.3 Liquids. 8.3.4 Military Freight. 8.4 The Future. 8.5 References. 8.6 Review Questions. Chapter 9: Process for Developing A Regional Transportation Security Plan. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Developing a Regional Transportation Security Architecture. 9.2.1 Security in a Regional ITS Architecture Development Process. 9.2.2 Developing a Regional Transportation Security Architecture. 9.3 Developing a Project Security Plan. 9.4 Conclusion. 9.5 References. 9.6 Review Questions. Chapter 10: Issues and Opportunities for Transportation Infrastructure Security. 10.1 ITS Security versus Privacy. 10.2 Public and Private Roles. 10.3 Stakeholder Cooperation and Coordination Requirements. 10.3.1 Information Sharing. 10.3.2 Resource Sharing Agreements. 10.4 Funding Sources and Constraints. 10.5 Human Resources. 10.6 Future Directions and Opportunities. 10.7 References. 10.8 Review Questions. Appendix A: National ITS Architecture Subsystem Security Descriptions. Appendix B: Securing Architecture Flows. Appendix C: USDOT FHWA Final Rule. Appendix D: USDOT FTA Policy on Transit Projects. Appendix E: Weibull Distribution Support. Index.