This book focuses on the attempts of three ascetics - John Moschus, Sophronius of Jerusalem, and Maximus Confessor - to determine the Church's power and place during a period of profound crisis, as the eastern Roman empire suffered serious reversals in the face of Persian and then Islamic expansion. By asserting visions which reconciled long-standing intellectual tensions between asceticism and Church, these authors established the framework for their subsequent emergence as Constantinople's most vociferous religious critics, their alliance with the Roman popes, and their radical rejection of imperial interference in matters of the faith. Situated within the broader religious currents of the fourth to seventh centuries, this book throws new light on the nature not only of the holy man in late antiquity, but also of the Byzantine Orthodoxy that would emerge in the Middle Ages, and which is still central to the churches of Greece and Eastern Europe.
Preface Abbreviations Introduction 1. Toward the Sacramental Saint Ascetics and the Eucharist before Chalcedon Cyril of Scythopolis and the Second Origenist Crisis Mystics and Liturgists Hagiography and the Eucharist after Chalcedon 2. Sophronius and the Miracles Impresario of the Saints Medicine and Miracle Narratives of Redemption The Miracles in Comparative Perspective 3. Moschus and the Meadow The Fall of Jerusalem Moschus from Alexandria to Rome Ascetics and the City Chalcedon and the Eucharist 4. Maximus and the Mystagogy Maximus, Monk of Palestine The Return of the Cross The Mystagogy 5. The Making of the Monenergist Crisis The Origins of Monenergism The Heraclian Unions Sophronius the Dissident 6. Jerusalem and Rome at the Dawn of the Caliphate Sophronius the Patriarch Jerusalem from Roman to Islamic Rule The Year of the Four Emperors From Operations to Wills Maximus and the Popes 7. Rebellion and Retribution Maximus from Africa to Rome The Roman-Palestinian Alliance Rebellion and Trial Maximus in Exile Conclusion Bibliography Primary Sources Secondary Sources Index