Until now, the study of American Indian literature has tended to concentrate on contemporary writing. Although the field has grown rapidly, early works-especially poetry-remain mostly unknown and inaccessible. Changing Is Not Vanishing simultaneously reinvents the early history of American Indian literature and the history of American poetry by presenting a vast but forgotten archive of American Indian poems. Through extensive archival research in small-circulation newspapers and magazines, manuscripts, pamphlets, rare books, and scrapbooks, Robert Dale Parker has uncovered the work of more than 140 early Indian poets who wrote before 1930. Changing Is Not Vanishing includes poems by 82 writers and provides a full bibliography of all the poets Parker has identified-most of them unknown even to specialists in Indian literature. In a wide range of approaches and styles, the poems in this collection address such topics as colonialism and the federal government, land, politics, nature, love, war, Christianity, and racism. With a richly informative introduction and extensive annotation, Changing Is Not Vanishing opens the door to a trove of fascinating, powerful poems that will be required reading for all scholars and readers of American poetry and American Indian literature.
The Garden of the Mind: An Introduction to Early American Indian Poetry POEMS Eleazar In obitum Viri vere Reverendi D. Thomae Thacheri, Qui Ad Dom. ex hac Vita migravit, 18.8.1678 English translation: On the death of that truly venerable man D. Thomas Thacher [written 1678, published 1702 Jane Johnston Schoolcraft (Ojibwe) Pensive Hours [written 1820, published 1962] The Contrast [written 1823 and possibly later, published 2007] Invocation To my Maternal Grandfather On hearing his descent from Chippewa ancestors misrepresented [written 1823, published 1860] To the Pine Tree on first seeing it on returning from Europe Translation [English translation of "To the Pine Tree"]  By an Ojibwa Female Pen, Invitation to sisters to a walk in the Garden, after a shower [written by 1826, published 1962] Lines to a Friend Asleep [written by 1827, published 1962] To my ever lamented and beloved son William Henry [written 1827, published 1962] To the Miscodeed  On Meditation  Sweet Willy [written 1835 or later, published 2007] Lines written at Castle Island, Lake Superior [written 1838, published 2007] On leaving my children John and Jane at School, in the Atlantic states, and preparing to return to the interior [written 1838 or 1839, published 1851] English translation of "On leaving my children . . . "  William Walker, Jr. (Wyandot) ["Oh, give me back my bended bow"] [written approximately in the 1820s, published 1882 and perhaps earlier] The Wyandot's Farewell [written 1843, published 1882 and perhaps earlier] Israel Folsom (Choctaw) Lo! The Poor Indian's Hope [written perhaps around 1831, published 1875] An Indian (Jesse Bushyhead?) (Cherokee) The Indian's Farewell  John Rollin Ridge / Yellow Bird (Cherokee) An Indian's Grave  Reflections Irregular  My Harp  Song ("Come to the river's side, my love")  Song ("I saw her once-her eye's deep light")  The Man of Memory  "The man twenty feet high . . . "  The Dark One to His Love  The Still Small Voice ("There is a voice more dear to me")  The Humboldt Desert  Mount Shasta [1853, 1854, 1868] The Atlantic Cable  Humboldt River [1860, 1868] To a Star Seen at Twilight [1849, 1868] The Forgiven Dead  To a Mocking Bird Singing in a Tree  The Rainy Season in California  The Harp of Broken Strings [1850, 1868] October Hills [1867, 1868] To the Beautiful  A Night Scene  False, but Beautiful  To L--- on Receiving Her Portrait  The Stolen White Girl  Poem ("The waves that murmur at our feet")  Erinna [1848, 1868] Lines on a Humming Bird Seen at a Lady's Window  Poem ("All hail, the fairest, greatest, best of days!")  A Scene Along the Rio de las Plumas  The Still Small Voice ("Alas, how every thing will borrow") [1848, 1851,1868] Eyes [1853, 1868] Te-con-ees-kee (Cherokee) Suggested by the report, in the Advocate, of the laying of the corner stone of the Pocahontas Female Seminary-Cherokee Nation  ["Though far from thee Georgia in exile I roam"]  Si-tu-a-kee, Jr. (Cherokee) To the Tahlequah Gals  William Penn Boudinot (Cherokee) ["There is a spectre ever haunting"]  Tso-le-oh-woh (Cherokee) A Red Man's Thoughts  What an Indian Thought When He Saw the Comet  C. H. Campbell (Cherokee) ["Our tribe could once of many warriors boast"]  Former Student of the Cherokee Male Seminary (Cherokee) The Rose of Cherokee  Joshua Ross (Cherokee) My Ruling Star  Sequoyah  The Wanderer  On a Lady's Eyes  Peter Perkins Pitchlynn (Choctaw) Song of the Choctaw Girl [undated, probably 1850s, published 1972] ["Will you go with me"] [undated, probably 1856 or 1857, published 1972] John Gunter Lipe (Cherokee) To Miss Vic [written 1861, published 1921] Anonymous Cherokee (Cherokee) ["Faster and fiercer rolls the tide"]  David J. Brown (Cherokee) Sequoyah  James Harris Guy (Chickasaw) ["The white man wants the Indian's home"]  Lament of Tishomingo  Old Boggy Depot [written about 1881, published 1927] Fort Arbuckle [written 1885 or earlier, published 1891] John Lynch Adair (Cherokee) Hec Dies: An Imitation  Joy Returneth with the Morning  John Palmer (Chemakum, Skokomish) [I Remember You]  Joseph Lynch Martin (Cherokee) A Dream  152 Stanzas by Uncle Joe  Wenonah (Cherokee) Thanksgiving  Hors de Combat (Cherokee) ["I've returned to home and scanty lunch"]  Alexander Posey (Creek [Muskogee]) O, Oblivion! [probably 1894] Ye Men of Dawes [probably 1894] ["To allot, or not to allot"] [written 1894, published 2008] Wildcat Bill  ["In UNCLE SAM'S Dominion"]  Cuba Libre  Callie  The Squatter's Fence [written about 1897, published 2008] To Our Baby, Laughing [written about 1897, published 2008] The Two Clouds [probably 1897] The Idle Breeze [written 1897, published 2008] My Fancy [written 1897, published 2008] To a Hummingbird  To the Crow [written 1897, published 2008] The Bluebird  Coyote  Sunset [written 1898, published 2008] The Legend of the Red Rose [probably written 1898, published 1910] To a Morning Warbler  Eyes of Blue and Brown [written 1898, published 2008] Flowers [written 1898, published 2008] The Deer [written 1898, published 2008] When Love Is Dead  Say Something  Tulledega [published about 1900] The Arkansas River [written about 1900, published 2008] Ode to Sequoyah  An Outcast  The Decree  On the Capture and Imprisonment of Crazy Snake, January, 1901  The Fall of the Redskin  Saturday  On Hearing a Redbird Sing  It's Too Hot  A Freedman Rhyme  On Viewing the Skull and Bones of a Wolf  A Vision of Rest  William Abbott Thompson (Cherokee) You Can Always Tell  Rufus Buck (Yuchi) My dream [written 1896, published 1898] 179 James Roane Gregory (Euchee [Yuchi], Muskogee [Creek]) The Promised Seal  Otheen, Okiyetos  Rain  Storm Lights  The Green Corn Dance  Nineteenth Century Finality  Kingfisher (Cherokee) After the Curtis Bill Passes  J. C. Duncan (Cherokee) The Red Man's Burden: Parody on Kipling's Poem  Richard C. Adams (Delaware [Lenape]) To the American People  A Delaware Indian Legend  To the Delaware Indians  Too-qua-stee / De Witt Clinton Duncan (Cherokee) The White Man's Burden  The Dead Nation  A Vision of the End  Cherokee Memories  Truth Is Mortal  A Christmas Song  Sequoyah  My Mother's Ring  Dignity  Labor  Indian Territory at World's Fair  Thanksgiving  Olivia Ward Bush-Banks (Montaukett) On the Long Island Indian  Morning on Shinnecock  A Hero of San Juan  Symbols [written after 1900, published 1991] Filled with You [written after 1900, published 1991] Regret  Heart-Throbs  BOARDING SCHOOL POEMS -Adin C. Gibbs (Delaware [Lenape]) The Cornwall Seminary  -Corrinne (Cherokee) Our Wreath of Rose Buds  -Lily Lee (Cherokee) Literary Day Among the Birds  -N. (Cherokee) [Farewell] ("To school-mates dear, to teachers kind")  -Emma Lowrey Williams (Cherokee) Life [written 1855, published 1922] -Elsie Fuller (Omaha) A New Citizen  -Samuel Sixkiller (Cherokee) To Class '95  [My First Winter Out of School]  -Melinda Metoxen (Oneida) Iceland  -J. William Ettawageshik (Ottawa) The Glow-Worm  -Anonymous Carlisle student My Industrial Work  -Lillian Simons (Mashpee) Silhouettes-Guess  -Maude Cooke (Mohawk) and Agnes Hatch (Chippewa) Our Cottage  -Francis L. Verigan (Tlingit) Be a Carlisle Student  The Martyrdom of Funny Face  -Tyler Young (Arapaho) Just Imagine  Mabel Washbourne Anderson (Cherokee) Nowita, the Sweet Singer  Henry B. Sarcoxie (Delaware [Lenape]) In the Desert  Up the Washita  Evalyn Callahan Shaw (Creek [Muskogee]) October  Laura Minnie Cornelius (Oneida) A Tribute to the Future of My Race  Hen-toh / Bertrand N. O. Walker (Wyandot) A Mojave Lullaby [1903, 1905, 1924] Pontiac  A Desert Memory [1906, 1924] A Song of a Navajo Weaver [1906, 1916, 1924] A Wyandot Cradle Song [1910, 1924] Arrow-Heads [1915, 1924] The Warrior's Plume [1915, 1924] A Strand of Wampum  The Calumet [1919, 1924] My Fren'  Injun Summa  The Seasons  Fishin'  Fire  Smokin'  Big Tree's Horse  A Borrowed Tale  Coyote  An Indian Love Song  Wyandot Names  Huntin'  Triplets  Sleep It Summa' Time  August  "Weengk"  Agency Police I  Agency Police II  Agency Police III  Joseph M. La Hay (Cherokee) Consolation  William D. Hodjkiss (Dakota) Song of the Storm-Swept Plain  Arthur Caswell Parker (Seneca) My Race Shall Live Anew  Faith  Irene Campbell Beaulieu (Sioux) Poor Lo  Carlos Montezuma (Yavapai) "An Evening's Reverie" [not previously published] Changing Is Not Vanishing  Indian Office  Civilization  Steady, Indians, Steady  I Have Stood Up for You  William J. Kershaw (Menominee) The Indian's Salute to His Country  Joseph Fights No More  Thomas Dewey Slinker (Choctaw) Our Side of It  James E. Waters / Wild Pigeon (Montaukett, Matinnecock) Montauk  King Philip (Pometacom)  The First American Alliance  Wanda Short On Straight to Freedom  Sunhair One Spirit-One Race  A Song of Hope  Our Contributor (Anishinaabe?) The Ne'er Digressing Quartette  Leta V. Meyers Smart (Omaha) W-H-O  On a Nickel  A Picture  A Young Man's Adventure with Opportunity  Wa Wa Chaw (Payomkowishum, Luiseno) The Trial of the Mission Indian  The Indian Cry  The Indians' Spirits  The Indian Game  Haunted Brains  Gone Are the Days  The Present Indian Slave [not previously published] My Psyche and Wassaja [written probably about 1923, published 1980] And So All Things of the Earth  In Memory of My Homosexual Friend: Imaginary Love. . . .  My Secret World  Ruth Margaret Muskrat (Cherokee) Songs of the Spavinaw  Sentenced (A Dirge)  When It's Dark  The Hunter's Wooing  An Indian Lullaby  Nunih Waiyah  from Sonnets from the Cherokee (May Mrs. Browning Pardon Me)  The Warriors' Dance  The Apache Reservation  The Trail of Tears  If You Knew  In Class  To an Indian Lover  Broken Wing Bird Why? Why? Why?  Come Back, Indians of Yesterday  Blue Feather The Lone Tee-Pee  Mrs. Minot Carter (Dakota) Raindrops  Fancies  Alfred C. Gillis (Winnemem Wintu) The Bird with the Wounded Wing  An Indian Cradle Song  The Shasta Lily  To the Wenem Mame River  The Sacramento River  Where Sleep the Wintoon Dead  The Klamath Girl  My Prayer  Arsenius Chaleco (Yuma) The Indian Requiem  Lynn Riggs (Cherokee) Charger [1928, 1930] Song of the Unholy Oracle  Spring Morning-Santa Fe  The Wolves [1928, 1930] Santo Domingo Corn Dance [1926, 1930] A Letter  Bird Cry  Wonder  The Deer  The Hollow  The Golden Bee  Angry Sea  The Golden Cockerel [1928, 1930] Skulls Like These  For a Silent Poet  Moon  Those Who Speak in Whispers  The Perfect Tree  The Vandals  The Corrosive Season [1927, 1930] Endless Legend  Before Spring  The Cross  Shadow on Snow  The Impenitent  Change  Footprints  Hour After Dawn [1928, 1930] D'Arcy McNickle [D'Arcy Dahlberg] (Confederated Salish, Kootenai) Plowing  Cycle  Today  Minuet in G  The Mountains  Old Isidore  Man Hesitates but Life Urges  Sweet Is the Prairie [As D'Arcy McNickle]  Ben D. Locke (Choctaw) The Doughboy  Hobachi (Echo)  Molly Spotted Elk (Molly Alice Nelson) (Penobscot) ["Down in the land of roses"] [not previously published] ["I never knew of such a place"] [not previously published] ["Twas only a bunch of roses"] [not previously published] We're in the Chorus Now [not previously published] Winnie Lewis Gravitt (Choctaw) Sippokni Sia  Sunshine Rider / Atalie Unkalunt (Cherokee) The Conquered Race  Mary Cornelia Hartshorne (Choctaw) The Poet  Fallen Leaves  Three Poems of Christmas Eve  Hills of Doon  April Will Come  Wind in Mexico  Sonnet  Julia Carter Welch (Chickasaw) Fall  The Weaver  Indian Lament  Redman  Gust-ah-yah-she (Menominee) The Indian's Plea  Stella LeFlore Carter (Chickasaw) Inauguration Day  Elise Seaton (Cherokee, Chickasaw) Orientale  Riverside  Notable False Attributions Bibliography of Poems by American Indians to 1930 Textual Notes Works Cited Index Acknowledgments